Royal Academy of Dance Advanced 2 Ballet Vocabulary

 

In addition to the vocabulary listed for Intermediate Foundation, Intermediate, Advanced Foundation and Advanced 1, dancers studying the Royal Academy of Dance Advanced 2 syllabus are expected to attain knowledge of:

 

 

Assemblés

Assemblé: “to gather; gathered”

 

Assemblé dessus en tournant

“gathered step; over; turning”

An assemblé dessus in which the dancer turns while jumping.

The dancer turns towards the leg that pushed off.

This step is usually preceded by a preparatory movement such as a running pas de bourrée and finished facing downstage (the front).

 

Petit assemblé devant en pointe

“small; gathered step; front; on tiptoe”

A petit assemblé devant performed en pointe.

Starting with the working foot placed sur le cou-de-pied devant, the dancer performs a low jump into the air, and lands in 5th position en pointes.

(Female syllabus only)

 

Petit assemblé derrière en pointe

“small; gathered step; behind; on tiptoe”

A petit assemblé derrière performed en pointe.

Starting with the working foot placed sur le cou-de-pied derrière, the dancer performs a low jump into the air, and lands in 5th position en pointes.

(Female syllabus only)

 

 

Ballottés

Ballotté: “tossed step”

 

Ballotté dessous en pointe

“tossed step; under; on tiptoe”

A ballotté in which the dancer begins with the back leg extended á terre or en l’air.

The dancer then draws the foot into 5th en demi pointes (passing through retiré derrière from an en l’air position), releases the front foot and performs a développé devant to 90 degrees en fondu.

(Female syllabus only)

 

Ballotté dessus en pointe

“tossed step; over; on tiptoe”

A ballotté in which the dancer begins with the front leg extended á terre or en l’air.

The dancer then draws the foot into 5th en demi pointes (passing through retiré devant from an en l’air position), releases the front foot and performs a développé derrière to 90 degrees en fondu.

(Female syllabus only)

 

 

Brisés

Brisé: “broken step”

 

Brisé volé devant

“broken step; flying; front”

A variation of brisé 1 foot to 1 foot.

The dancer begins with the working leg dégagé derrière, brushes it through 1st position en demi-plié to 4th position devant just above glissé height, pushes off and beats the supporting leg to the working leg.

The dancer lands sur place on the initiating leg en fondu, with the new working leg extended devant just above glissé height.

(Female syllabus only)

 

Brisé volé derrière

“broken step; flying; behind”

A variation of brisé 1 foot to 1 foot.

The dancer begins with the working leg dégagé devant, brushes it through 1st position en demi-plié to 4th position derrière just above glissé height, pushes off and beats the supporting leg to the working leg.

The dancer lands sur place on the initiating leg en fondu, with the new working leg extended derrière just above glissé height.

 

Brisé dessus finishing in cou-de-pied derrière

“broken step; over; finishing with the working foot on the neck of the supporting foot; behind”

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Cabrioles

Cabriole: “leap of a goat; caper”

 

Cabriole ouverte devant

“caper; open; front ”

A cabriole in which the dancer begins in 5th position, usually with the working leg devant.

The dancer brushes the working leg devant en l’air between 45 degrees and 90 degrees, pushes off and beats behind the working leg, performing the beat in front of the body. They then land on the same foot with the extended leg held devant en l’air.

 

Double cabriole ouverte devant

(Male syllabus only)

 

Cabriole ouverte derrière

“caper; open; back”

A cabriole in which the dancer begins in 5th position, usually with the working leg derrière.

The dancer brushes the working leg derrière en l’air between 45 degrees and 90 degrees, pushes off the floor and beats behind the working leg, performing the beat in front of the body. They then land on the same supporting foot with the extended leg held derrière en l’air.

 

Cabriole de côté dessus

“caper; to the side; under”

A cabriole in which the dancer begins in 5th position with the working leg devant.

The dancer brushes the working leg to 2nd en l’air between 45 and 90 degrees, pushes off the floor and beats the supporting leg in front of the working leg, performing the beat to the side of the body.

The dancer lands on the same supporting foot and either immediately closes the extended working leg 5th position derrière en demi-plié (cabriole fermée de côté) or holds the extended leg in 2nd en l’air (cabriole ouverte de côté.

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Changements

Changement: “to change; changing”

 

Changements en pointe

(Female syllabus only)

 

 

Echappés

Echappé: “to escape; escaped”

 

Echappé sauté battu fermé changé to 2nd with double beats

“escaped action; jumped; beaten; closed; to 2nd with change of feet; with double beats”

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Entrechats

Entrechat: “to interweave”

 

Entrechat six

“to interweave; six”

A jump in which the legs change to beat, change again to beat, and land with the other leg devant.

There are six interweaving actions, three with each leg.

 

Entrechat six de volé de côté

“interweave; six; of flight; to the side”

An entrechat six travelled sideways and initiated with a brush to 2nd.

The dancer begins in 5th position with the working leg derrière.

The dancer brushes the back foot to 2nd, jumps beating the push-off leg behind the working leg, then beats twice with a change of feet on each beat to land in 5th position with the working leg devant.

 

 

Fouettés

Fouetté: “whipped; a whipping action”

 

Fouetté relevé en pointe

“whipped; pulled up; on tiptoe”

A relevé on the supporting leg with a simultaneous turn of the body away from the extended leg, which strives to maintain its position en l’air.

(Female syllabus only)

 

Grand fouetté relevé en tournant

“big; whipped; pulled up; turning”

A virtuoso turn consisting of a relevé to 2nd en l’air, followed by a fouetté relevé en tournant with the same leg, completing one full revolution.

From dégagé derrière, the dancer performs a grand battement to 2nd en écarté devant with a simultaneous relevé action. The leg brushes through 1st position en demi-plié and the dancer makes a ¼ turn en dedans to perform a grand battement devant with a relevé action.

The dancer completes the turn with a fouetté to arabesque ending croisé.

The arms move to 2nd position with the battement to 2nd, undersweep 1st to 5th position with the battement devant, and open to 2nd arabesque at the end of the fouetté action.

 

Grand fouetté relevé en tournant en pointe

(Female syllabus only)

 

Fouetté sauté battu en tournant

“whipped; jumped”

A jump on the supporting leg with a simultaneous turn of the body away from the extended leg (which strives to maintain its position en l’air in space).

Embellished with a beat.

 

Grand fouetté sauté en tournant

“big; whipped; jumped; turning”

(Male syllabus only)

 

Fouetté rond de jambe en tournant en pointe

“whipped action; circle of the leg; turning; on tiptoe”

(Female syllabus only)

 

 

Gargouillade

Gargouillade: “to gurgle; an embellished step”

An embellished pas de chat.

The dancer begins in 5th position with the working leg devant, releases the front foot and leaps sideways performing a double rond de jambe en l’air action en dehors.

The dancer lands on the original working leg as the other leg executes the circular action of a single rond de jambe action and closes through retiré into 5th position devant.

 

 

Grands battements

Grand battement: “big; beating action”

 

Grand battement enveloppé

“big; beating action; enveloped”

A grand battement performed with an envelopé closing: the foot passes through retiré before closing into 5th position, instead of sliding along the floor with the leg fully extended.

 

 

Jetés

Jeté: “thrown; a jump taking off from one leg and landing on the other”

 

Jeté élancé en tournant

“thrown; darted; turning”

A composite step consisting of a grand jeté en avant and a pas de bourrée dessus or coupé dessous performed with a full turn.

The arms usually open to 1st arabesque on the jeté and close to 1st position with the turn.

 

Coupé jeté en tournant

“cutting step; thrown step; turning”

A composite step consisting of a coupé dessous (under) en tournant and a jeté en avant.

(Female syllabus only)

 

Coupé jeté battu en tournant

“cutting step; thrown step; beaten; turning”

(Male syllabus only)

 

Grand jeté en avant with développé

 

Grand jeté en avant en tournant in attitude

“big; thrown; forward; turning; in attitude”

A grand jeté initiated by a coupé dessous. This movement allows the dancer to turn en dehors before leaping forward, appearing to travel in a curved path through space before landing en attitude.

 

Jeté passé derrière in arabesque

“thrown; passed; behind”

A spring in which the legs pass one another behind the body at the height of the jump.

The dancer begins with the working leg en l’air derrière in arabesque en fondu, springs into the air and passes the supporting leg behind en l’air derrière before landing on the other leg en fondu.

(Male syllabus only)

 

Jeté ordinaire derrière battu

“thrown; ordinary; behind; beaten”

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Pas de basques

Pas de basque: “step of the Basque”

 

Petit pas de basque en manège en pointe

“small; step of the Basque; turning; in a circle”

A type of pirouette often performed in series.

From dégagé devant, there is a spring to the side landing on the extended foot en pointe and circling the other foot to 4th devant at glissé height; then a closing to 5th devant en pointes with a ¼ turn.

The movement continues with a ¾ turn toward the back foot to complete the turn in 5th posiiton with the other leg devant before the back foot lowers en fondu.

Similar to petit soutenu, except that in petit pas de basque en tournant the second leg circles to 4th devant before closing 5th en pointes.

(Female syllabus only)

 

Grand pas de basque en tournant

“big; step of the Basque; turning”

A large pas de basque performed without travelling and with a turn.

The dancer begins in 5th position with the working foot devant. They perform a grand battement devant, push off the supporting leg, which performs a grand battement devant, and land sur place en fondu on the other leg. The dancer then draws the feet to 5th en demi-pointes to execute a pas de bourrée dessus en tournant.

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Pirouettes

 

En dehors: double en demi-pointe in attitude

(Female syllabus only)

 

En dedans: single in 1st arabesque and double in attitude

(Female syllabus only)

 

En dehors: double finishing in 2nd arabesque en fondu

(Female syllabus only)

 

En dehors and en dedans: triple en demi-pointe

(Female syllabus only)

 

En dehors and en dedans: double in attitude or arabesque

(Male syllabus only)

 

En dehors and en dedans: double in 2nd position

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Retirés

Retiré: “to take away or remove; a withdrawn position or action”

 

Retiré sauté passé devant

“withdrawn; jumped; passed; front”

A retiré sauté passé with the working foot beginning 5th derrière and ending 5th devant.

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Renversés

Renversé: “overturned action”

 

Renversé en dehors with relevé en pointe

“overturned action; outwards; pulled up; on tiptoe”

Incorporates an outward circle of the working leg, leading to a turn away from the supporting leg.

The working leg is extended devant en fondu; then, with a relevé on the supporting leg, the working leg lifts forward and circles upward through 2nd. The working leg continues to attitude derrière en fondu with the torso arched slightly backward over the supporting leg.

The action is completed with a pas de bourrée dessous en tournant.

(Female syllabus only)

 

 

Ronds de jambe

Rond de jambe: “circle of the leg”

 

Double rond de jambe sauté en dehors and en dedans

(Male syllabus only)

 

Grand rond de jambe sauté to attitude derrière

(Male syllabus only)

 

Grand rond de jambe relevé en dehors to arabesque

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Saut de basque

Saut de basque: “jump of the Basque”

 

Saut de basque

A turning jump from one foot to the other.

The dancer steps along the line of travel, turns en dedans and brushes the working foot forward along the line of travel. The working leg opens to 2nd at 90 degrees as the body continues to turn in the air.

Once the turn is completed, the dancer lands on the foot that brushed, with the other foot placed mid-shin.

May be initiated by a posé coupé dessous posé (galop).

The arms usually pass from 2nd position to just below 1st position on the step forward and move through 1st to 5th position on the brush.

 

Double saut de basque

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Sissonnes

Sissonne: Thought to originate from “ciseau” – “scissors”

 

Sissonne doublée battue with développé dessous

“sissonne; doubled; beaten; with unfolding action; under”

A composite step, consisting of:

• a sissonne ouverte de côté devant (with the working leg passing through retiré before extending en l’air)

• a coupé dessous

• and an assemblé battu dessous (the back foot slides to 2nd and beats back/front in the air – landing with a change of feet so that the working foot finishes 5th devant).

 

Sissonne ouverte changée en tournant in attitude

“sissonne; open; changed; turning”

A grand allegro jump.

The dancer jumps from 5th position, turns toward the back foot and travels forward opening the front leg en l’air derrière. The dancer lands en fondu en attitude.

 

Sissonne ordinaire devant and derrière en pointe

“sissonne; ordinary; front and back on tiptoe”

A jump sur place from two feet landing on one foot with the working foot placed sur le cou-de-pied (devant or derrière).

(Female syllabus only)

 

Sissonne ordinaire devant en tournant

“sissonne; ordinary turning”

A turning jump sur place from two feet landing on one foot with the working foot placed sur le cou-de-pied devant.

(Male syllabus only)

 

 

Temps de flêche

Temps de flêche: “time; of the arrow”

A grand allegro jump performed with an arrow-like quality.

Consists of a temps levé en arabesque, a battement en cloche to attitude devant and a jump onto the other leg with the working leg performing a développé devant and immediately closing 5th position en demi-plié.

The arms may pass from 2nd position to 1st position on the battement and through 5th to 2nd position on the jump.

(Female syllabus only)

 

 

Temps de poisson

Temps de poisson: “movement of the fish ”

A soubresaut jump performed with high elevation and an arched back.

The dancer springs up into the air with the feet and legs stretched and held in a tight 5th position. The feet are throw backward and upward while the upper back is arched – this creates a curved body line that resembles a flying fish. The dancer lands on the foot that began in front, with the other leg extended derrière just off the floor.

The arms may pass through bras bas and first to fifth to complement the curve of the body.

(Male syllabus only)

 

 


 

Bibliography

 

This resource was created for revision purposes and is intended as a helpful guide.

It was compiled using the following Royal Academy of Dance publications:

 

Royal Academy of Dance (2021) Specifications. Available at: https://www.royalacademyofdance.org/exams/specifications-and-syllabus-updates/ (Accessed: 5 December 2021).

Royal Academy of Dance (2015) The Foundations of Classical Ballet Technique. Royal Academy of Dance Enterprises.

Royal Academy of Dance (2002) The Progressions of Classical Ballet Technique. Royal Academy of Dance Enterprises.

Ryman, Rhonda (2007) Dictionary of Classical Ballet. 3rd edition. Royal Academy of Dance Enterprises.

 

 


 

 

Georgina Butler is an editor, a dance writer and a ballet teacher.